Dwemer, meaning "Deep Elves", "Deep Folk"  , "People of the Deep", "Smart Elves" (based on the Dlyxexic theory)  or as they are commonly referred to by Men, "Dwarves", are a lost race of Mer that lived primarily in the region of Dwemereth, which largely consisted of modern-day Morrowind, and where it is believed that they had a strong, dominant presence there, though they also had a very strong presence in Skyrim , High Rock and Hammerfell. They are well known for their craftsmanship, metalwork and metallurgy, stonework, technological prowess, as well as their huge advancements in architecture, magic, science and technology, far beyond other races of intelligence. 
The Dwemer are often referred to as "Dwarves" in western cultures, although they were no shorter than a human and the name seems to have been derived from a supposed encounter with giants who saw the Dwemer as short. However, according to Herbane, the Dwarves were the size of large children all with beards;this is evidenced by the fact that Dwarven Armor pieces found in Dwarven Ruins are average-sized that can be compared to other Mer, Men and Beastfolk.  Like the members of the Psijic Order, the Dwemer race themselves, possessed the ability to telepathically communicate with each other.  They were a reclusive, independent race, dedicated to the professions and principles of alchemy , arcane magic , science, technology, stonework , crafting and engineering . During the Battle of Red Mountain, when Kagrenac attempted to tap into the Heart of Lorkhan, the entire race did not die out; instead, the entire Dwemer race, save one, vanished into thin air simultaneously all around Nirn.
Yagrum Bagarn was the only known remaining living Dwemer on Nirn. He resided in the Corprusarium deep beneath the island of Vvardenfell, in the Morrowind province of Tamriel. He had been infected by corprus, granting him eternal life, but constant pain. He was searching for clues to the whereabouts of his race when the Nerevarine discovered him. 
Little is known of the history of the Dwemer, and the early history and origins of their civilization, and most of their history is mostly a record of their conflicts with other races and each other. As such, their timeline is imprecise for many of these events. 
After the Nordic-Falmer War began and the Atmorans began to purge and eliminate the Snow Elves, the remaining Snow Elves turned to the Dwemer for help.  Some believed that the Dwemer would help the Snow Elves fight off the Atmorans and avenge their fallen and help reclaim their land. This would not be so, and when the Snow Elves came to the Dwemer for help, the Dwemer made a deal with the Snow Elves for their protection, but the Dwemer tricked the Snow Elves; the Dwemer blinded them by giving them a toxic fungi native to Blackreach, and then the Dwemer followed this with enslaving them. 
Records of Dwemer activity dated back to before the First Era, most notably in the Vvardenfell region. Vvardenfell in Dwemeris meant "City of the Strong Shield", which had the highest concentration of Dwemer cities of any land in Tamriel. Feuding between Chimer and Dwemer continued until the creation of the First Council, when the Dwemer and Chimer united to expel the Nords from Morrowind. One clan of Dwemer, the Rourken Clan, refused to make peace with the Chimer, and their patriarch threw his ceremonial warhammer, Volendrung, across Tamriel, proclaiming that his clan would settle where it landed. Over time, they settled in modern-day Hammerfell, explaining that region's name, also home to the Redguards. When the Rourken Clan marched to modern-day Hammerfell, they encountered a powerful mage known as Shalidor. The Rourken Clan and Shalidor fought against each other, which would come be known as the Battle of Rourken Shalidor. King Rourken was said to have used his shield known as Spellbreaker during the battle. 
Sometime after 1E 221, the Dwemer discovered a new raw mineral while mining in FahlZhardum Din, or Blackreach. They named this new mineral, Aetherium. An alliance was formed between Blackreach, Arkngthamz, Raldbthar, Mzulft and Bthar-zel, now known as Deep Folk Crossing. The roles of this project were spread out between the cities; Arkngthamz would serve as the main command center and the primary research facility, while Raldbthar, which happened to be located right above Blackreach, was given the role of dealing with mining operations. Mzulft was used as a storage site, but it is unknown what role Bthar-zel/Deep Folk Crossing was assigned.
War of the Crag (Continued)
As decades have gone and past, the Snow Elves were now blinded and enslaved by the Dwemer, and over time, had slowly de-evolved into the Falmer. At some point, the Falmer would rise up against the Dwemer and revolt. In Blackreach, the war would rage on and on as the two Mer races fought against each other in the darkness of the massive cavern. 
Tensions began to flare between the Chimer and Dwemer once again. Dwemer miners had discovered a magical stone deep under the Red Mountain, and when Kagrenac, the Chief Tonal Architect of the Dwemer, he decided that this magical stone was indeed the Heart of Lorkhan. Kagrenac decided to use three devices to tap into the Heart, and when the Chimer discovered this, they believed that the Dwemer were mocking and disgracing their cultural beliefs. A great war erupted between them, eventually leading to the mysterious disappearance of the Dwemer during the Battle of Red Mountain. Again, the difficulty was prompted by the discovery of a mythological artifact known as the Heart of Lorkhan by the Dwemer, deep in the mountains' bowels. The Chief Tonal Architect Kagrenac, their de facto religious leader, devised a set of tools, Sunder, Keening, and Wraithguard , to manipulate the Heart to instill divinity to his people, in order to make them immortal, but the spell backfired and caused all known Dwemer to vanish, in the form of a Dragon Break. 
Varying scholarly accounts state that their connection to the heart was severed, although this seems unlikely. Other accounts suggest that Kagrenac used his Tools to release the Dwemer from the Mortal Plane, in order to make all of his people immortal, but this was even more implausible.
After the Disappearance
Since 1E 668, no word had been heard of the Dwemer, with the notable exception of Yagrum Bagarn, who resided in the Corprusarium of Tel Fyr. Apparently, he was absent from the Mortal Plane at the time of the disappearance, visiting an Outer Realm, an alternate dimension. His three thousand years of exploration and five hundred years of investigation have yielded no leads on the presence of his people on Mundus or any other plane of existence currently known.
There are many mysteries among the Dwemer creations left behind. Mages Guild investigators had discovered that if one of the centurion spiders was taken away from Vvardenfell, it gradually became more sluggish, eventually going into a state of torpor. Even more curious was that upon return, the spider re-activated back to normal aggressive levels, as if sensing the presence of the Dwemer ruins. Due to Hammerfell's origins, the Dwemer robots reactivate in the lands of the Redguard as well.
In 4E 201, Arniel Gane of The College of Winterhold attempted to recreate a scenario of Kagrenac's workings on the Heart of Lorkhan by using Keening on a warped soul gem. As he was using Keening on the warped soul gem, he disappeared instantly; this strengthens the theory that the Dwemer race disappeared instantly, although many scholars disapprove of this theory altogether. 
Dwemer artifacts were highly prized throughout the Empire, although since they were technically the property of the Emperor under the charter of the Imperial Society of Architecture and Design as well as the Imperial Historical Society, the sale of them was illegal. This did not seem to stop artifacts from falling off the backs of wagons or otherwise disappearing into various collections. Dwemer weapons and armor were especially valued, renowned for their excellent craftsmanship and sturdy design. Dwarven blades were constructed by a series of folded Dwemer metal sheets which made these weapons very strong and the armor was polished so blades would simply slip on it, though this affect may have been worn away over the centuries. However, acquisition of these artifacts was extremely dangerous, because of the remote location of the ruins, and the multitude of aged and unreliable Dwemer machinery within, including the Steam Centurion and other automata, as well as sophisticated traps of which the Dwemer were particularly fond.
There is no known story of background behind the Dwemer's disassociation with the Aldmer and other Mer races, other than some political and legal principles.    The Dwemer are also far different than any other race on Tamriel, not just other Mer races. The preferred the use of machines and tools over magic, though there is evidence to support that they Dwemer used magic. They were also very reclusive, not bothering to interact much with other races and introduce their ideas and knowledge of machinery, stonework and metalwork to other races.
EconomyVery little is known about the economy of the Dwemer, but it is known what form of currency they used, which was the Dwemer Coin.
Not much is known about the Dwemer's military, but it is known what kinds of weapons, devices and other military technology they used. With the Dwarves' mastery over metalwork, robotics and smithing, their ground armies utilized their automatons to a great extent. Spiders, Spheres, Ballistas and Centurions wrecked havoc when unleashed against enemies on the battlefield, completely decimating enemy forces.
The Dwemer needed military industries to produce weapons, armor and tools for their infantry forces, as well as the need for war machines and Automatons. The Dwemer military command ordered the construction of the city of Nchardak to be the location of a large military production center. After it was finished and production started, the armories and forges were able to produce a complete automaton in a single day.
It is unknown what religion the Dwemer had, or if they worshipped any Gods or not, but it is known that they scorned the Daedra, the Nine Divines and essentially all of the Gods, and attempted to defy them with their values of reason and logic. The Dwemer believed that they were more powerful than the Gods and could acquire powers that could equal or even rival them. In their underground denizens, the Dwemer studied powerful, magical relics and researched powers that they believed "could rival the Gods themselves." The Dwemer religion, if it is one at all, is said to be one of the most complex and difficult puzzles of Dwemer culture. 
Language and writing system
- Main article: Dwemeris
Both the Dwemer's language and writing system is referred to as Dwemeris; the language is a dark one, utilizing many z's and d's in its form. The writing system is composed of and written as the Dwemer's own form of runes and glyphs, somewhat similar to the Daedric Alphabet, the writing system of the Daedra. The runes for the Dwemer alphabet is incomplete, with the runes for the letters B, C, H, J,K,P,Q,T,X and Z being as of now unknown.  The language and writing system of Dwemeris is heavily based on the Aldmeri Language. 
Some forms of Dwemeris have been seen in the form of prefixes and suffixes of notable Dwemer names of various historical terms, such as "Volen-," meaning "hammer," and "-Fell," meaning "city," giving Volenfell; "City of the Hammer." The warhammer Volendrung has had it's name translated into the ,"Hammer of Might'", by Dwemer scholars and translators. The nation of Hammerfell can attribute its name to the aforementioned warhammer, as Dwemer and Hammerfell lore-history holds that the Chieftain of the Rourken Clan decided to move his people to a new location, so he threw that very warhammer from Morrowind and would move to wherever it ended up, which was at the site of the city of Volenfell in Hammerfell, hence the two locations' names. The name FalZhardum Din, based off of observations of Dwemeris texts and inscriptions on tablets and walls in an unknown Dwemer city, has been revealed to be the Dwemer name for Blackreach. 
The two books known as Divine Metaphysics and The Egg of Time were written in Dwemeris, but were so far unable to be translated by Dwemer scholars. Three other books, also written in Dwemeris, Hanging Gardens, Nchunak's Fire and Faith, and Chronicles of Nchuleft, were all able to be translated by Dwemer scholars. 
The Dwemer were a free-thinking and reclusive Elven clan who lived in Morrowind during the First Era. The Dwemer, in general, were a very advanced and powerful civilization. Dwemer society did not force the use of technology over magic, but the general view of their society was that magic was unimportant and pointless, so much so, that most people were "Mockers and profaners of the divine."  They criticized, ridiculed and mocked the concept of magic, and even the people who used it. They preferred the use of technology over magic, though some of their technologies were imbued with sources of powerful magic, and at times they would have to use magic to create their many devices and tools.
When imagining and studying the society that the Dwemer had when their primary ideologies revolved around the persuits of logic, science and study, it seems likely that the people of Dwemer society who studied and reasoned, would be promoted to the highest, most respected and most prestigious of positions in society. The position that a person in Dwemer society who studied and reasoned could have reached that probably would have equalled "clergy in a more mystically-inclined culture." This idea is supported by a fragment of Dwemeris text recovered and translated by Dwemer scholar Thenwe Ghelein, from a Dwemer colony - Irkngthand - who believes it to be associated with the Rourken Clan.
Some scholars interpret those words as evidence to support that the Dwemer may have worshipped Mundus, but some scholars such as Thenwe Ghelein hypothesize that those two Dwemeris quotes are related to societial matters.
The Dwemer who inhabited Stros M'kai were heavily reliant on steam power. They lived in great half-subterranean buildings and created mechanical creatures known as Animunculi as well as other devices. According to many First Era scholars, the Dwemer were feared by the Dunmer, Nords, Redguards and perhaps even by the Gods. Some Dunmer scholars might say, in this respect, that the Dwemer were blasphemous. They challenged the power and superiority of the Et'Ada, the Aedra and Daedra, questioned their authority, and traveled from Mundus into the Outer Realms of Aetherius and Oblivion. The Dwemer scorned the Daedra, and mocked the Chimer's foolish rituals, and preferred instead their Gods of reason and logic.  Many scholars agreed that those factors may have led to their demise.
Though opinionated, it could be said that the Dwemer were both a naturally evil race yet also a noble and honorable one. During the War of the Crag, the remaining Snow Elves who were still alive went to the Dwemer for help against the Nords  who were taking down the Snow Elves in revenge for their sack of Saarthal.  The Dwemer agreed to their request, but in exchange, the Snow Elves were given a toxic fungus which blinded their race and were then enslaved.  On the other hand, the Dwemer people were a very noble and honorable race. Legends tell of their heroic tales of honor and glory.  The Dwemer were known to be fearsome, ruthless, unfathomable, and even cruel, but were also careful, intelligent, revolutionary and noble.  
Probably the defining aspect of the Dwemer was their use of the Heart of Lorkhan. According to legend, after Lorkhan tricked or convinced the Aedra to create the mortal realm, they tore out his divine heart and threw it down to Nirn, to be hidden forever. The Dwemer found this heart, researched its intricacies, and used its divine power to create incredibly powerful technologies. They created the blade and tuning fork Keening and the hammer Sunder, along with the Wraithguard, to tap the power of the Heart, so they could use the power to create powerful technology imbued with powerful magic so great it could "rival the power of the Gods themselves."One of the things they built was a monstrous golem, similar to a un-electric robot, called Numidium, or the Brass God , which was designed to help them transcend the Grey maybe, Nirn, the Mortal Realm by drawing power directly from the Heart. In other words, this golem was more than just a destructive force. It was an actual new God that the Dwemer had created from the substance of Lorkhan, the "Dead" God. After the Dwemer disappeared, Numidium made a reappearance in a weaker form when Tiber Septim used its power to conquer all of Tamriel and forge the Third Era.
Secondly, the last living Dwarf, Yagrum Bagarn, said that when the Dwemer disappeared he was in the "Outer Realms", and thus did not disappear with them. The Outer Realms referred to that which was outside of Nirn, whether it was Aetherius, Oblivion, or some other "location" in the Aurbis, is unknown. At any rate, this shows us that at least some Dwemer had the ability to remove their bodies from the mortal Plane and travel beyond normal bounds, something like having an out of body experience and, perhaps, taking your body with you. This idea was backed up by Baladas Demnevanni, who said that the Dwemer had practiced "generations of ritualistic 'anti-creations'", which possibly contributed to their disappearance. It was unknown whether The Calling and those anti-creations were a natural or learned trait or whether they stemmed from some technology or from some use of the Heart.
One form of entertainment in Dwemer society was the Kagrumez Trials. When the Dwemer still existed, any warfighter could participate in the event, where he/she and many others would have to fight, each for their own, to the death against a variety of Automatons and survive against environmental and elemental effects.
The Dwemer lived in cities that were commonly referred to as strongholds , as well as Freehold colonies , as well as city-states. Dwemer cities were vast and expansive, containing living spaces , areas for scientific, engineering and arcane study , and sections squared off for the production of Automatons. These areas were interconnected with great halls and long passageways running throughout the Dwemer's underground cities. Some sections of Dwemer cities were sectioned and named for a specific role., The Arcanex was a section of a city used for arcane study, and observational studies have shown that the Arcanex in Bthardamz contains a suprising collection of soul-gems, alchemical concoctions and magical text. This evidence supports a possible theory that Dwemer scientists and engineers may have also invested some of their time in magical study.  The Animonculory section of a city was the section used for the role of industrial production, and the purpose of producing Automatons. An Animunculory was notably found in the city of Alftand. Although Nchardak did not contain an Animunculory, one of the city's main roles was to act as a major military production center, capable of producing a single Animunculi/Automaton in a single day. As opposed to the weapons, armor, tools and technology developed by the Dwemer, their architecture was mainly composed of stone. On the other hand, the Dwemer's methods of stonework and architectural construction was just as unique and grand as their metalwork.
Dwemer architecture is unique in that the Dwemer favored stone over other materials, such as wood or clay. Their mastery of stonework is a shining example of their civilization, and a notable one at that. As opposed to metal, which was found in their Animunculi, "Dwarven artisans favored stone, at least as far as their buildings were concerned." However, as the Dwemer began to advance and achieve mastery over metalwork and more complex tools, metal was added to their architectural designs for buildings. Nevertheless, "the foundation of all known dwarven ruins is built on stonework, and the structure of dwarven stonework is sharp, angular and intensely mathematical in nature."
Crafts and craftingMetalwork was the primary method used to make almost all dwarven crafts, as nearly all Dwemer crafts were made of metal. However, the more easily destructible materials such as clay, paper, and glass cannot be discounted from the scope of Dwarven craftsmanship.
Given the tendency of Dwarven design to favor the long-lasting over the fragile, it can safely be assumed that at the very least metal was a heavy preference, and the metal used in all so-far-discovered Dwarven relics is entirely unique to their culture. In a scholarly view, the Dwemer essentially built to last, and the remaining examples of crafts, tools and devices display that notable aspect.
No other race has ever replicated the process that was used to create dwarven metal. Although these materials can be easily mistaken for bronze, it is most definitely a distinct type of metal of its own. The methods of mining and extracting the natural materials found in the deep reaches of their cities and the methods of producing the Dwemer metal has been lost to time as all attempts to imitate dwarven metal's exclusive properties have failed. The Dwemer had an incredible knowledge of mining, extracting and smelting the ore they found, as well as incorporating the smelted metal into their weapons, armor, tools, devices and other crafts. However, no type of ore has been verified or even discovered that the Dwemer may have used to smelt into metal ingots that they used in their crafts. The only method that has been successful is to melt down existing dwarven metallic scraps and start over from there.
The Dwemer knew much about metal, and from extensive research done on metal, the Dwemer created the concept known as the Seven Natures of Metal. When Ahzidal came to the Dwemer for their power and and their great knowledge of metal, metalwork, stonework, technology, science and magic. 
Dwemer armies experimented with using crossbows. Though bows were used, crossbows were technologically advanced and each bolt it fired packed a great punch, though the rate of fire and reload time was slow. Various Dwemer engineers drew up schematics for crossbows, including a standard one and one that was enhanced. Schematics were also drawn up for explosive bolts to be used along with the standard bolt. Three known variants of the explosive bolt type have been seen; an exploding fire bolt, exploding ice bolt and an exploding shock bolt.
Dwarves created and manufactured on a very broad scale thousands of mechanical apparatuses of varying complexity. These constructs are referred to as Animunculi, or automatons. Several types can be found within ancient Dwemer ruins, the most simple of which was of the standard arachnid design used to ward off trespassers. The design of the automatons themselves resemble a fusion of fantasy and steampunk designs, featuring gleaming brass cogs and gears.   Most automatons contain a Soul Gem which is believed to be what brought these machines to life, but also somehow acts as a boiler due to the extreme energy held within it. In some automatons, such as the Dwarven Spider Guardian, the soul gems acts as a source of destruction magic, being able to attack intruders with lightning.   Dwemer Animunculi are capable of receiving, interpreting and responding to the actions of people around them, due to the excellent work produced by Dwemer engineers.  Animunculi are somehow linked to their place of origin, and will immediately lose power and shut down if removed from the vicinity.  It is possible that animunculi were capable of reconstructing and repowering themselves to go back to protecting their former master's denizens. The pinnacle of their genius was the creation of a device called a Lexicon that allowed them to read an Elder Scroll without going mad or blind, as well as acting as a portable information repository, being able to store vast amounts of knowledge within the device.  Septimus Signus comments that such combinations of machinery and magic were trademarks of the Dwemer.
For outsiders who were not Dwemer, access to Blackreach required two technological components to enter Blackreach. An Attunement Sphere was a device developed in conjunction with Dwarven Mechanisms; together, these two devices created the key for outsiders to access Blackreach. If an adventurer wishes to take the dangerous challenge and enter Blackreach, one must acquire an attunment sphere, then enter a Dwemer ruin that is connected to Blackreach, then place the sphere into the mechanism, and a spiraling staircase will open up below, leading to the golden, metal doors that will lead to Blackest Kingdom Reaches. 
The Oculory was a massive construct located in Mzulft and inside the Tower of Mzark in Blackreach. The Oculory in Mzulft was designed and built to collect starlight, then transmute it and split it. If and when calibrated correctly with a Focusing Crystal, it can then be used to project this energy into a map of Tamriel, and can then harness the energies to reveal locations of great sources of magical power. The Focusing Crystal was yet another device created by the Dwemer to power the Oculory.  The Oculory located in the Tower of Mzark, however, was desgined and built to store artifacts of great importance, notably the Elder Scroll (Dragon). According to Paratus Decimius, the Orrery at the Arcane University was the inspiration for the Oculory.
The Orrery were elaborate, massive constructs designed for astronomical observation and study. Since the Dwemer had a significant mastery over metalwork, construction of massive machines and interest in the sciences, notably astronomy, the Orrery were trademark developments of the Dwemer in their metalwork and scientific studies. One notable Orrery was located in Stros M'kai, constructed by the Rourken Clan sometime during 1E 420.
One piece of technology the Dwemer created was a Control Cube. A Control Cube was designed and used to control specific constructs and maintain them, such as a power system, steam pump system and/or an aqueduct system. The Dwemer of Nchardak notably used many of these Control Cubes to maintain their city, control the various power system that kept the city stable and control the power system which supplied power to the Reading Room, as they would no doubt want to keep their massive, expansive library safe from outsiders. Another piece of technology the Dwemer created were Tonal Resonators. Tonal Resonators were used as openers of doors and checkpoint markers between passageways. After the Dwemer mysteriously dissapeared, these still functioning Tonal Resonators in Dwemer ruins also acted as puzzles for adventurers, scholars and other people who journeyed through through the ruins.
Another piece of technology that was supposedly created by the Dwemer was the Dwemer Puzzle Cube. Its purpose is unknown, but there is evidence which supports the idea that this small Dwemer construct is in fact of Dwemer making. It is golden and in the shape of a cube, and was owned by Calcelmo before being stolen by the Thieves Guild.
Besides mastering in the other arts and professions of their civilization, the Dwemer also mastered over the use of mathematics and science in itself and as an asset to their other professions.  Science was an important aspect of Dwemer academic society, especially the science of Cosmology, or Astronomy. The Dwemer studied the constellations, stars and planets up in the night sky in order to better understand the outside world. The Dwemer constructed huge stationary machines known as Orrery which was a scaled model of a solar system that depicts planetary motion. Orrerys' aided Dwemer astronomers in their scientific studies of the night sky.
Dwemer observatories have made incredible observations of the night sky during their existence. As is known throughout all of Tamriel, Aurbis encompasses Mundus, which includes Nirn, its moons, the stars and Aetherius, the realm of the Aedra; Nirn is the only planet in the mortal plane also known as Nirn. The two moons that encompass Nirn are Secunda and Masser, in which Masser is the larger of the two. There is also the Void and Oblivion, which are also immortal realms of the Daedra. To see more on the background of the world and its creation, see these articles, which can be identified in the sources section below.
Although there are some ideas that the Dwemer opposed and mocked the concepts of arcane magic and preferred the professions of mining, crafting, metalwork, stonework and the studies of science, the Dwemer did in fact explore the world of magic. The Dwemer explored the arcane arts so much that they were masters of magic in ways most people cannot imagine. The Dwemer had advanced machines such as Dwemer Convectors that were developed by Tonal Architects which were used to alter any Soul Gem and transform it into a Warped Soul Gem.  Dwarven Spiders were also experimented with the incorporation of Soul Gems, which allowed the Spiders to function besides their internal steam power and working gears and cogs.   The Aetherial artifacts are another example of the Dwemer's cultural characteristic for the arcane arts. It is true, however, that Dwemer society dictated that magic and divine worship was wrong, unusual, and useless, but it was not enforced.
The Aetherial Staff it is a Conjuration staff in nature, because its ability is to summon either a Dwarven Spider, Dwarven Sphere or a variety of common Dwemer artifacts. The Aetherial Shield can cause enemies to become ethereal for fifteen seconds, making them unable to attack or be attacked. The Aetherial Crown allows the wearer to retain the last Standing Stone he or she held, as well as the wearers' current standing stone. The three artifacts' powerful enchantment comes from the Aetherium which was used to create it.
The Dwemer were extremely great miners and predominant in that art, and excavated deep beneath the surface to build their cities.
Based on the excavations, findings and research produced by scholar Thenwe Ghelein, Dwemer excavators and architects in Vvardenfell excavated and built their cities differently than other Dwemer colonies throughout the rest of Morrowind, as well as the rest of Tamriel. For Dwemer colonies in Vvardenfell, when a mountain was excavated and a new city was built, there was a specific threshold to which Dwemer excavators would dig before the actual establishment of structures would begin. Dwemer scholar Thelwe Ghelein has referred to this threshold as a "Geocline." Sections commonly located above the Geocline included surplus stores of food, warehouse chambers that may have been used to trade with other nearby surface settlements, and barracks for military patrols. 
The internal structure of the ruins was also unique; the more significant locations of the city were found closer to the surface. In Dwemer ruins on the mainland, the more important parts of a city were found much deeper underground. These findings have lead some scholars to believe that sites and cities outside of Vvardenfell and Morrowind are mere outposts, but some scholars state that differences between excavation and construction styles are because "Clan architects simply had their own styles and preferences when it came to civic planning." Some scholars state that in Dwemer society, techniques and architectural design, development and construction were based on emperical study, so room for creativity and openess was small. One theory that supports the last hypothesis is that geological makeup most likely played a significant role for Dwemer colonies who had just begun to excavate out a mountain where they had prepared to build a new city. It was tougher for Dwemer excavators of colonies excavating in northern Skyrim, where the lands were cold and windy and the ground was rocky and frozen solid, versus Dwemer excavators working in Vvardenfell, where the volcanic substratum was soft and easy to dig through, or the "ubiquitous aquifiers found in Hammerfell." It is possible that Dwarven excavators in the northern areas were "not even able to excavate larger structures until reaching more pliable stratum." 
Dwemer ruins and Blackreach
- Main article: Dwemer Ruins
Before the Battle of Red Mountain and the disappearance of the Dwemer, their cities were magnificent places to behold. Built under the surface and into the mountains, massive caverns stretched through under the mountains composed of great halls, large chambers, housing sections, crafting workshops and huge buildings of great stature. Dwemer cities also contained various structures designed for scientific research and study, such as an Oculorys  and Orrerys . Though the Dwemer mostly had a larger foothold in Morrowind, there were a number of cities spread across Hammerfell, High Rock and Skyrim, and it has been hypothesized that the Dwemer capital is Blackreach, which is located in Skyrim.  Dwemer cities in Skyrim were commonly referred to as strongholds , city-states , as well as Freehold colonies.
Dwemer cities were often divided into sections, which could include upper districts and lower districts, great halls, great chambers, market-places, cathedrals, animonculeries, workshops, studies, arcanexes and aedromes. The cities such as Fahlbtharz and Nchardak featured great chambers, and cities such as Bthardamz and Nchardak featured workshops. Other cities such as Avanchenzel and Fahlbtharz featured boileries, while Avanchenzel and Alftand featured animonculuries. Some Dwemer cities featured sections that other cities did not; for example, Mzulft contained a section referred to as an aedrome, while Alftand had a cathedral, as well as Nchardak containing an acqueduct section.  An arcanex, notably found in Irknthand, was used for scientific and arcane studies that Dwemer scientists and mages used for their studies, and were noticeably smaller than other sections of a Dwarven city. A suprisingly large number of magical objects such as soul gems, alchemical concoctions and magical texts were found in various arcanexes, and scholars have this evidence to support a theory that the Dwemer did in fact dabble in the arcane arts. It is also possible that the Dwemer used these Halls for studying Men and other Mer, who to the Dwemer would seem as alien as the Dwemer seem to people in the modern age. 
Some notable Dwemer cities were specifically constructed for certain purposes. For example, the city of Nchardak in Solstheim was built for two reasons/purposes: first to collect and organize a collection of knowledge in the form of books and scrolls, as well as to house a huge, advanced library to hold all of the collected information; and secondly, to serve as a massive military industrial complex, building the Dwemer military's weapons, war machines and Automatons.  Another example of Dwemer cities being used for a specific purpose was when four Dwemer city-states of Skyrim initiated a project to study Aetherium. These four city-states were Arkgthamz, Mzulft, Raldbthar and Bthar-zel. Each city-state had their own role in the project, but all worked together to get the ore mined, refined and combined with industrial production materials to create Aetherium artifacts. Arkngthamz was assigned the purpose of controlling the project, and being the main command center and primary research center, while Mzulft was given the role of being the storage site. Raldbthar was assigned the task of mining and handling the Aetherium ore/mineral directly, as the city was located directly above Blackreach, the primary source of Aetherium. It is unknown what role Bthar-zel was assigned.
After Kagrenac used his tools on the Heart of Lorkhan which caused his people to disappear, Dwemer ruins started to become dangerous to explore because of the remaining automatons, such as sphere guardians, hidden traps, and in the case of Arkngthamz, a geological event such as an earthquake. There is also the presence of the Falmer who took up residence in many of the cities. However, all the ruins contain treasure, such as gold, weapons, armor, jewelry, tools, other items, as well as common and unique Dwemer artifacts, and even some magical relics. The presence of wealth and treasure inside these Dwemer ruins incites the creation of both organized exploration parties and lone explorers.
There is also the matter of FalZhardum Din/Blackreach, a stronghold that connects Alftand, Raldbthar and Mzinchaleft together . Blackreach is one of the deepest Dwemer strongholds, and is a single, extremely large underground cavern, containing many Dwemer buildings and fortifications.
- Bthuand Mzahnch - One of the Tonal Architects and author of "The Egg of Time." In it, Bthuand argued against the idea that tapping the power of Lorkhan's Heart was too dangerous. Some believed that using the Heart would have side effects, but the Tonal Architects argued that no unforeseen consequences could result from their work.
- Dumac - King of the Dwemer and friend of Indoril Nerevar. Dumac and Nerevar united their races to drive the Nords from Morrowind, then Dunmereth.  They then renamed the land Resdayn and formed the First Council as a ruling body over the two races. The two developed mutual respect and trust between the two of them, as well as a great friendship.  They created peace throughout the land, and good relations developed between the Chimer and Dwemer, and the two civilizations prospered together. Eventually, however, they warred on each other when Nerevar demanded that the Dwemer cease construction of the Numidium, which Dumac may or may not have known about. Also called Dumac Dwarfking or Dumac Dwarf-Orc by his enemies , as well as Dumalacath. 
- Kagrenac - The Chief Tonal Architect  of the Dwemer. Kagrenac was the primary Mer who worked on the Heart of Lorkhan. He created the original brass god, Numidium , as well as Keening, Sunder, and the Wraithguard. He was present at the Battle of Red Mountain, and, according to some stories, went to use the tools on the Heart at the last second before his race evaporated. 
- Radac Stungnthumz - A Dwemer ghost that helped the Nerevarine reforge the Trueflame, the sword of Nerevar. Radac was originally a soldier that somehow knew about applying Pyroil Tar on a blade in order to make it burning and deadly.
- Yagrum Bagarn - The last living Dwemer and one of Kagrenac's Tonal Architects. Bagarn was in the Outer Realms when the rest of his race disappeared, so he was unaffected by the event. He wandered Morrowind for many years searching for other Dwemer, to no avail. Eventually he caught Corprus and descended into madness for many years. He was later housed in the Corprusarium at Tel Fyr and was mostly conscious, though he did not have full control of his body or mind. 
- Main article: Dwemer Artifacts (Skyrim)
- Bent Dwemer Scrap Metal
- Large Decorative Dwemer Strut
- Large Dwemer Strut
- Large Dwemer Plate Metal
- Solid Dwemer Metal
- Small Dwemer Plate Metal
- Dwemer Gyro
- Dwemer Fork
- Dwemer Gear
- Dwemer Dish
- Dwemer Scrap Metal
- Dwemer Knife
- Dwemer Lever
- Dwemer Spoon
- Dwemer Cup
- Dwemer Bowl
- Dwemer Cog
- Dwemer Pan
- Small Dwemer Lever
Unique artifacts found by the Dwemer
Finding, studying and examining relics and artifacts of great power was "somewhat of a specialty of the Dwarves" as noted by Telvanni wizard Neloth, as the Dwemer themselves were a power-hungry civilization searching for sources of immense power. 
The Dwemer searched for relics and artifacts of great power because their people were an intellectual race, heavily interested in the art of research, study and examination of powerful objects, such as the Daedric artifact Epistolary Acumen, belonging to Hermaeus Mora.
- Elder Scroll (Dragon) 
- Heart of Lorkhan 
- Epistolary Acumen
- Oghma Infinium  
- Eyes of the Falmer 
- Crown of Barenziah 
Unique artifacts created by the Dwemer
- Kagrenac's Tools: Keening, Sunder, Wraithguard 
- Spellbreaker 
- Volendrung 
- Dwarven Black Bow of Fate 
- Visage of Mzund
- The Dwemer draw inspiration from the mainstream interpretation of "Dwarves" in fantasy media. They are, in fact, the Dwarves of the Elder Scrolls series.
- Their outfits and appearance seem to draw inspiration from the Babylonians and ancient Greeks, especially their beards and clothes.
- The Dwarven language, Dwemeris, especially in lore, is analogous to traditional Gaelic.
- The Dwemer resemble the history surrounding the Mayans. Both cultures were way ahead of their time in technology and society, and both have mysteries surrounding their disappearances.
- The Dwemer also take culture from the Mesopotamian/Babylonian Civilizations, such as appearance, armor, and being one of the first civilizations.
- Due to the fact that Dwarven Armor fits all characters, it can be infered that the Dwemer were of normal height.
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, First Edition
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, Third Edition
- The Battle of Red Mountain, and the Rise and Fall of the Tribunal
- Kagrenac's Tools
- Progress of Truth
- Nerevar at Red Mountain
- The Real Nerevar
- The War of the First Council
- The Five Songs of King Wulfharth
- Sermon Zero of the Thirty-Six-and-Nine Sermons
- The Aetherium Wars
- Antecedents of Dwemer Law
- Secrets of Dwemer Animunculi
- Herbane's Bestiary: Automatons
- Guylaine's Architecture
- Ruins of Kemel-Ze
- Ancient Tales of the Dwemer (Not a real account of "ancient tales" of the Dwemer and has nothing to do with the real Dwemer; the stories of this book series is actually based off of the Dwemer and is a fictional series)
- Dwarves, v1
- Dwarves, v2
- Dwarves, v3
- Dwemer Inquiries Vol I
- Dwemer Inquiries Vol II
- Dwemer Inquiries Vol III
- Dwemer History and Culture (A book that is not actually about the Dwemer, though it annotates, criticizes and cites the criticism of the non-scholarly, fictional book series about the Dwemer, "Ancient Tales of the Dwemer" by the Dwemer scholar community)
Studies of Dwemer cosmology
- Academy for Dwemer Studies
- Imperial Library Astronomy and Astrology
- UESP Astronomy
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, Third Edition: Arena Supermundus
- The Monomyth
- The Lunar Lorkhan
- Magic from the Sky
- Katria's Journal
- Ulyn's Journal
- Eydis's Journal
- Erj's Notes
- Krag's Journal
- Staubin's Diary
- Stromm's Diary
- Research Notes
- Expedition Manifest
- Sulla's Journal
- Umana's Journal
- Endrast's Journal
- Journal of Drokt
- Gallus's Encoded Journal (Written in Dwemeris and the Falmer language)
- Kagrenac's Journal (Written in Aldmeris and Dwemeris)
- Kagrenac's Planbook (Written in Aldmeris and Dwemeris)
Ancient texts written in Dwemeris
- Kagrenac's Journal (Written in Aldmeris and Dwemeris)
- Kagrenac's Planbook (Written in Aldmeris and Dwemeris)
- The Egg of Time
- Divine Metaphysics
- Dwarven Crossbow Schematic
- Enhanced Dwarven Crossbow Schematic
- Dwemer Exploding Fire Bolt Schematic
- Dwemer Exploding Ice Bolt Schematic
- Dwemer Exploding Shock Bolt Schematic
Other texts translated from Dwemeris
- The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind (First appearance)
- The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion (Mentioned only)
- The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim
- ↑ 36 Lessons of Vivec, Sermon 5
- ↑ Pocket Guide to the Empire, First Edition: Morrowind
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Pocket Guide to the Empire, First Edition: Hammerfell
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 The Aetherium Wars
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Dwemer Inquiries Vol I
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Dwarves, v1
- ↑ Herbane's Bestiary: Automatons
- ↑ Observations of Dwarven Armor in Dwemer Ruins
- ↑ The Doors of Oblivion
- ↑ Ancient Tales of the Dwemer, Part V: Song of the Alchemists
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Kagrenac's Tools
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Dwarves, v2
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 The Battle of Red Mountain
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 Nerevar at Red Mountain
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 Events of The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 Pocket Guide to the Empire, Third Edition: Morrowind//
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 The Falmer: A Study
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 Journal of Mirtil Angoth
- ↑ Dialogue with Knight-Paladin Gelebor
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Tamrielic Lore
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 Katria's Journal
- ↑ Arniel's Endeavor
- ↑ Pocket Guide to the Empire, Third Edition: Summerset Isles
- ↑ Antecedents of Dwemer Law
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Dialogue with Neloth during The Path of Knowledge.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 26.2 Nchunak's Fire and Faith
- ↑ http://dwemerstudies.wiwiland.net/runes.html
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 Dwemer Inquiries Vol III
- ↑ Divine Metaphysics
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 The Egg of Time
- ↑ Hanging Gardens
- ↑ 32.0 32.1 32.2 Chronicles of Nchuleft
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 The Seven Curses
- ↑ Night of Tears
- ↑ Dialogue with Karliah during the events of Blindsighted
- ↑ Dwarves, v3
- ↑ 37.0 37.1 Anumidium Plans
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 Events during The Kagrumez Trials
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 The War of the First Council
- ↑ Staubin's Diary
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 Dwemer Inquiries Vol II
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 Dialogue with Neloth
- ↑ Ahzidal’s Descent
- ↑ Observations of Animunculi in Dwemer Ruins
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Research Notes
- ↑ Aicantar's Lab Journal
- ↑ Senilius' Report
- ↑ Events during Unfathomable Depths
- ↑ Dialogue with Septimus Signus
- ↑ Interactions with Attunement Sphere and Dwarven Mechanism
- ↑ 51.0 51.1 51.2 Dialogue with Paratus Decimius during Revealing the Unseen.
- ↑ 52.0 52.1 Events during Elder Knowledge
- ↑ 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 Events of The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion
- ↑ Dwarves book series
- ↑ Pocket Guide to the Empire, Third Edition: Arena Supermundus
- ↑ Dialogue with Arniel Gane during Arniel's Endeavor
- ↑ Observations of Dwemer Ruins
- ↑ Dialogue with Neloth during The Path of Knowledge
- ↑ Events during Lost to the Ages
- ↑ 36 Lessons of Vivec, Sermon 36
- ↑ The Tale of Dro'Zira
- ↑ 62.0 62.1 Progress of Truth
- ↑ The Lost Prophecy
- ↑ Dialogue with Septimus Signus during the events of Discerning the Transmundane
- ↑ Events of Discerning the Transmundane
- ↑ Thief's Last Words
- ↑ Dialogue with Vex
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