After entering the cave, there is a long spiral walk down to the actual cave. It is inhabited by Falmer, Chaurus, and Chaurus Hunters. A Shellbug is also located about a quarter of the way down the spiral in a secret room. In the cave are some Falmer huts and a chest with decent loot and an exit which takes you out by the riverbank below where the entrance is.
Starting from the Wayshrine of Resolution, travel north across the rock overpass and follow the path to the left, down the cliffside. Take a right and some Falmer huts can be seen. Travel through the closed gate and up the next path. Just before the top there will be another rock overpass to the right, travel across it, fighting falmer along the way. The entrance to Sharpslope Cave is located on this path.