After entering the cavern, there is a long spiral walk down to the main cave. It is inhabited by Falmer, Chaurus, and Chaurus Hunters. A Shellbug is also located in close proximity to the top of the spiral in a hidden room. The crevice that leads to the room is under three large mushrooms. In the cave are Falmer huts and a chest with random loot. There is also an exit nearby which leads out by the riverbank below where the entrance is.
Starting from the Wayshrine of Resolution, travel north across the rock overpass and follow the path to the right, down the cliffside. Take a right and some Falmer huts can be seen. Travel through the closed gate and up the next path. Just before the top there will be another rock overpass to the left, travel across it, fighting falmer along the way. The entrance to Sharpslope Cave is located on this path.