Volkihar Master Vampires are the highest level Vampires encountered in The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim. Like with all Vampires, the Dragonborn can contract Sanguinare Vampiris from their attacks. They are extremely deadly, casting Destruction spells and Vampiric Drain which can sap large amounts of health. They generally use Ice Spike when encountered at higher levels, and Frostbite at lower levels. They are usually accompanied by 1 or 2 Volkihar Vampires, as Volkihar Master Vampires are leaders of the Volkihar Clan.
A Volkihar Master Vampire can be found in Bloodlet Throne, depending on the Dragonborn's level. He is a highly difficult opponent and can leech life in large amounts. One tactic is to lure him to the bridge outside his cave and use Unrelenting Force to blow him down. He will still not die, but his health will be reduced considerably.
A Volkihar Master Vampire can also be found at Shriekwind Bastion. Another method is to use the pull-chain right outside of his cave to trap him inside, enabling the Dragonborn to slowly get his health down with the option to withdraw and heal.
With high enough (80+) skills in Sneak and Archery, the Shriekwind Bastion's master vampire can easily be killed by first muffling, opening the door to its cave (the one after the flame traps). It will be directly to the front, but if the Dragonborn is crouching, it won't react at first and can quickly be dispatched with arrows (high level Archery recommended, high damage bow (Daedric or Ebony Legendary), Fortify Archery items and potions a big help). Because of sneaking, it will have a hard time detecting the Dragonborn, even after the first arrow, giving the Dragonborn enough time to kill it before located.